Interview with Hielke Sheneman

Working in the Dutch resistance

Barbara Milman: "At the time of the German invasion there were 140,000 Jews in Holland, and by the summer of 1943 the Germans estimated that there were approximately 20,000 Dutch Jews in hiding. About 18,000 of the hidden Jews survived the war, including at least two of the three Jews hidden by Hielke Sheneman and her family. Holland had more 'righteous gentiles' than any other European country. By 1990 over 3,200 Dutch citizens had been honored by the State of Israel for helping Jews escape the Holocaust, often by hiding them from the Nazis."

Hielke Sheneman moved to Amsterdam and joined the underground. She delivered the underground newspaper, scavenged for food, and hid Jews.

Sheneman: "When the Germans killed someone we put flowers on the sidewalk where they died. Toward the end of the war the killings increased so much that the sidewalks were always full of flowers."